Internet of Things (IoT) basically refers to internetworking and interconnection of computing devices, machines, objects, that are usually embedded with unique identifiers and have the ability to transfer data over a large and wide network. It is referred to as the connection of millions of physical devices via Internet usually used for collection and sharing of data. IoT primarily involves conversion of human intelligence towards digital intelligence by just merging the digital world and physical devices. The internet of things integrates the interconnection of the human culture with the digital information systems. The main concept of IoT was implemented with the arise of wireless internet that became more pervasive. The devices that we use in our day to day lives such as connected thermostats, ATM machines, wearable gadgets and even traffic lights all make up the IoT.
Why Internet of Things has become more relevant and important..?
Through IoT, all physical devices are connected with internet and hence it can be more beneficial in streaming of data used for collection & sharing of data. Some of the main reasons due to which IoT has become an important part of our developing economy are as follows:-
• Automation in transport systems:-
IoT when implemented in the transport systems especially in traffic monitoring systems has all the more improved in reducing the traffic flows, consumption of fuels, and hence will result in saving many lives.
• Education combined with IoT:-
With the advent of IoT in education sectors, it has enabled to bolster the security of the campus, enhancement of the educational institutions to manage their key resources, and also provide a better access of information to teachers, parents, and students.
The use of some automated software which mainly aim at the easy management of the entire school administration by connecting several networks to a single database server will be more efficient. This can be implemented with the help of school ERP softwares such as CampusCare which is one of the prime tool mainly used for the hi-tech education system.
• Ensures Security & Safety of Students:-
The IoT has proved itself efficient in ensuring security of students inside the campus. The RFID technology is combined with IoT to track and easily access information regarding the student's real-time location while being on-site which is a major benefit for parents & teachers to ensure about their child's safety. Some of the effective devices that can be used by students includes the RFID wristbands and Smart ID-cards by which their exact location can be tracked at any time.
• Cost Savings & Increased Energy Efficiency:-
Inside the school & college premises use of IoT technology can be made more efficient to the educational administrations by reducing cost of heating, air-conditioning and lighting. Smart temperature sensors can be easily installed inside the classrooms and also the industrial sectors, by connecting these sensors to heating systems to monitor the temperature conditions. Through IoT system connected to heating systems, windows will automatically open & close, turn up & down the radiators and also will control the heating systems thus ensuring a balanced & normal room temperature and no wastage of energy.
• Financial & Accounting Sectors:-
The IoT can help the school administration in case of tallying the accounts by just connecting the payment system to a central database server and then monitoring & reporting of accounts can be automatically without any manual intervention.
• Enhances student performance:-
The use of IoT in the field of education provides a student-centered approach where the wearable gadgets and muse headbands are devices used by students that can have a potential far beyond the daily routine documentation. Thus, it will help in monitoring the heart rate and brain signals and therefore benefits teachers and parents to receive alert notifications of any distracted thoughts and thus keep their children stay focused.
Along with the positive side of the use and implementation of IoT system, there are also some of the challenges faced and they are as follows:-
• Lack of Financing:-
The wearable gadgets and smart devices are sources of hi-tech technology that are not easily available at cheap rates and hence are very expensive. Hence, there needs to be a large financial support for the implementation of such devices.
One of the biggest challenges faced in the implementation of IoT is Interoperability among the smart gadgets' manufacturers. Since the IoT connects with the small scale industries, there can be problems of compatibility where the manufacturers of small-scale industries cannot work smoothly with each other. Hence, they are at a risk where the monopoly of their market can be affected.
• Loss of Privacy and Data Security:-
Nowadays, our everyday devices are rapidly connected to the Internet and therefore there can be a threat that all confidential information regarding the user can be easily hacked by any unauthorized users. Hence, security of confidential data is not ensured to a large extent.
• Technologically controlled life:-
The use of hi-tech technologies in our daily lives has become so prominent that in the near future days we will be completely dependent on the technology and hence it will drastically reduce human interaction skills across the society.
• Lack of Menial Staff:-
The unskilled workers are the ones who are most affected by the invasion of automation in our daily lives. This can lead to large extent of unemployment which can thus be overcome by education.
The IoT has already taken a priority in our everyday lives, even without the realization by many of us. As technology is continuing to grow and develop day by day, so too will the use of IoT for many of our basic interactions. Thus the Internet of Things in the near future will revolutionize our daily lives. It is up to us on how we decide that our daily lives are willing to be controlled by hi-tech technologies. If implemented correctly, it will automatically adapt to our basic needs and thus will benefit society as a whole.